[An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women Books ] Free Reading as eBook By Karen Stote – PDF, TXT & Kindle free



6 thoughts on “An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women

  1. says:

    A very important book about forced sterilization eugenic policies and practices throughout Canadian history with a detailed chapter o

  2. says:

    Despite the book’s small size 200 pages including notes index etc Karen Stote’s “An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women” is a devastating indictment of both capitalism and the Canadian state I must admit due to the overwhelming amount of information in this book it is difficult to accurately review it as I don’t think I can do justice to this book with a simple review The book begins

  3. says:

    Wow This book seriously challenges everything we think we are as Canadians I was completely unaware of the devastating events that were brought to light in this book To say it made me rife with mixed emotions would be an understatement Karen Stote is a writer of monumental talent Major respect to you for givin

  4. says:

    Essential reading on one aspect of the hidden history of Canada with present day relevance

  5. says:

    Read this book as Pam Palmater's Reconciliation Book Club subject to this book is very important and the book is filled with gems of information on forced sterilization and the clear and cogent argument the book makes that Canada's practice is an act of genocide The book also addressed the cynical element of government a

  6. says:

    reuired reading

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free download ✓ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ë Karen Stote

Thin the context of colonialism the oppression of women and the denial of Indigenous sovereignty Karen Stote argues that this coercive sterilization must be considered in relation to the larger goals of Indian policy to gain access to Indigenous lands and resources while reducing the numbers of those to whom the federal government has obligations Stote also contends that in accorda. Despite the book s small size 200 pages including notes index etc Karen Stote s An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women is a devastating indictment of both capitalism and the Canadian state I must admit due to the overwhelming amount of information in this book it is difficult to accurately review it as I don t think I can do justice to this book with a simple review The book begins with a brief introduction as to how the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women and to a far lesser extent men served colonialism in Canada Aboriginal peoples the author writes have been strategically and systematically targeted for assimilation into Canadian society The control of women s reproductive capacities by the Canadian state has been central to this end Between 1928 73 at least three thousand people were sterilized in Alberta and British Columbia alone under the direction of a provincially mandated Eugenics Board In these provinces Aboriginal peoples were those to whom legislation was most applied as compared to their numerical significance in the general population In chapter one Eugenics Feminism and the Woman uestion the author examines the history of eugenics and how eugenics racism and the subjugation of women serve capitalist interests as well as the centrality of women to and the role of early feminists in perpetuating these ideologies Racism is inherent to exploitative societies The basic purpose of a racist ideology is to deny the humanity of those who are being oppressed to blame individuals for their miserable conditions and to divert attention away from those who are doing the oppressing In the case of the burgeoning industrial capitalist state the poor living conditions of the masses needed to be explained as due to individual failures Eugenic ideology served this purpose Also Under the capitalist patriarchal mode of production the reproductive capacities of women have been subverted exploited and controlled in particular and specific ways to ensure its capitalism s proper functioning According to eugenics theory women as bearers of the next generation were seen as responsible for reproducing the race both in a biological sense and in their role as reformers and child raisers Thus Eugenicists sought to actively encourage the reproduction of some women while at the same time seeking to ensure their cooperation in efforts to curb the reproduction of others through their support for measures like marriage regulation institutionalization and sterilization A marriage of convenience was conseuently born Many eugenicists were prepared to support certain rights for some women to the extent that these would help buttress the political and economic enterprise of nation building based on an inherently racist notion of who belonged while some feminists adopted eugenic ideology to strengthen their arguments for social reformA eugenic feminism was developed by these women who were involved in shaping North America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries This eugenic feminism served the interests of capitalism and the Canadian state by arguing for freedom only for those who demonstrated fitness to use this freedom appropriately that is within the confines of the existing relations of productionThe eugenic feminism advocated by reformers like Nellie McClung Emily Murphy or Irene Parlby did not become the dominant discourse on the rights of women in the early twentieth century because it held the possibility for emancipation from relations of oppression and economic dependency This feminism was given prominence because it reinforced these very relations It met the reuirements of the mode of production by further assimilating women into socially desired roles and by providing space for some to perpetuate oppressive relations on others Chapter two Indian Policy and Aboriginal Women examines how the subjugation and control of Aboriginal women was imperative for colonization to be successful and for capitalism to become the dominant mode of production Prior to European contact Aboriginal women enjoyed a status drastically different from that held by women in Western European societies of the same time period In many Aboriginal societies Women were responsible for meeting many of the needs of their communities and even though there was a division of labour this did not imply inferiority Rather men and women enjoyed the right of access to food tools and other means of survival by their simple fact of existence Aboriginal women were also central decision makers affecting social life and they enjoyed greater freedom in their sexual life than did European women These and other egalitarian Indigenous forms of life existed in fundamental opposition to the relations reuired for colonization or the imposition of Western capitalism Colonialists thus proceeded to distort and undermine the roles of Aboriginal women If Aboriginal women had no connection to their means of subsistence and were oppressed by Aboriginal men then the colonial relations that were being imposed could easily be justified as acts of goodwill or simply another variation of what was already in existence thereby opening up Aboriginal lands for exploitation Colonization and the imposition of capitalist relations necessitated Aboriginal peoples being reduced to a marginal class within the capitalist mode of production Assimilation allowing for the termination of the legal line of descendants able to claim rights to the land and resources on which Canada depends for its existence was and continues to be a method to turn Aboriginal peoples into menial wage labourers and for gaining access to their lands and resources The logical conseuence of assimilation is that it also becomes increasingly difficult for Aboriginal peoples to practice their own ways Therefore assimilation is a twofold process involving the imposition of a particular way of life at the expense and with the destruction of the former Another manner by which assimilation is carried out is by stripping Aboriginal women of the ability to control their reproduction and denying them the opportunity to raise their children in ways that are in keeping with their ways of life Colonial policy has attacked the ability of Aboriginal women to reproduce and short of eliminating this ability altogether has sought to curb it or confine it within socially accepted forms conducive to capitalist relations Chapter 3 Sterilization Birth Control and Abusive Abortions documents the history of the use of sterilizations birth control even before it was publicly available and abortions in limiting the capacity of undesirables namely Aboriginal women to reproduce Since both Alberta and British Columbia had enacted legislation mandating compulsory sterilization these provinces are discussed heavily in this chapter Interesting bits of information from this chapter In Alberta the Sexual Sterilization Act was in effect from 1928 73 with a Eugenics Board overseeing the sterilization of 4739 people of whom a disproportionate number were Aboriginal women When opposition to the Act gained momentum and its repeal became likely the rate at which Aboriginal peoples were sterilized underwent a terrific increase almost as if Alberta knowing the end was near at least officially made one last ditch effort to sterilize as many Aboriginal people as possible In 1937 the Department of Indian Affairs did express some concern about the Eugenics Board in Alberta but only to ensure that it avoided a charge that bears resemblance to genocide despite the term not being prominent in international discourse at the time British Columbia was the second province to enact a Sexual Sterilization Act in effect from 1933 o 1973 This act permitted the provincial Eugenics Board to sterilize any inmate of a provincial institution deemed hereditarily unfit specifically any inmate of an industrial school or industrial home school ie Residential Schools for girls Contraceptives were also prescribed or coercively implanted IUDs to Aboriginal women before becoming legally available to all Canadians Before the legalization of birth control for contraceptive purposes it was considered viable to promote their use in Indigenous communities and these were prescribed with the express intent of limiting the number of births within the group Chapter four Settling the Past documents the many legal challenges that led to the repeal of the Sexual Sterilization Acts in BC and Alberta as well as the unwillingness of past and present federal and provincial governments to acknowledge any wrongdoing Finally chapter five Canada Genocide and Aboriginal Peoples examines the applicability of the word genocide to Aboriginal people in Canada and how Canada has made it almost impossible for Aboriginal people to charge past and present federal and provincial governments in Canada with genocide The chapter begins with an analysis of genocide as understood by the man who coined the term Raphael Lemkin According to Lemkin genocide is much broader than direct killing Generally speaking genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves Genocide is directed against the national group as an entity and the actions involved are directed against individuals not in their individual capacity but as members of the national group Thus as the author of the book summarizes genocide is not simply a singular event directed against individuals but a process by which the ability of a group to exist is undermined through acts directed against members of a group because of their common group status Despite Lemkin s much broader definition of genocide Canada the US and Britain succeeded in watering down the UN s Genocide Convention to refer only the physical extermination of human groups Instead these same states have emphasized human rights with serious conseuences for Aboriginal people As Ronald Niezen writes cited in the book The promotion of exclusively individual human rights has dangerous implications because many nation states have vested interests in controlling and usurping collective rights including the collective human rights of Indigenous peoples Individual human rights are insufficient to protect collective treaty rights Emphasizing exclusively individual human rights leaves states with an opening to interfere in group identity to provide only those cultural choices that weaken both Indigenous societies and the distinct collective principally treaty rights that are part of their relationship as sovereign entities with states To do otherwise than to recognize Indigenous rights to self determination is to invite the continued repression and marginalization of Indigenous societies Interesting is how the refusal of past and present Canadian governments to enact legislation making it possible for someone in Canada to be charged with genocide the only other avenue being the charge of murder corresponds with Canada s role as an imperialist country Lester B Pearson the founder of Canadian peacekeeping in his position as Foreign Affairs Minister stated rather bluntly that Canada In approving this Genocide Conventionwill be proclaiming throughout the world that genocide is considered by us to be a monstrous crime We will be doing something to make it difficult for ANY OTHER COUNTRY emphasis added to commit that crime Also interesting are the parallels the author draws between Canada s efforts to circumscribe the definition of genocide with those of the Nazi leadership at Nuremberg The fact that Canada by refusing to acknowledge certain elements of the Genocide Convention sough to excuse itself from international law does not change the fact that genocide accurately describes many of its policies concerning Aboriginal people One should also consider that the primary defense advanced by the Nazi leadership at Nuremberg was that Germany had never accepted the international laws they were accused of violating Instead they argued the policies they carried out were legal under German law The allied powers represented on the tribunal including Canada flatly rejected this argument The wriggling of the Canadian government in this instance bears an uncomfortable resemblance to that of the Third Reich This review in no way does justice to this book I d highly recommend this book especially to Canadians

summary An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women

An Act of Genocide Colonialism and the Sterilization of Aboriginal Women

Nce with the original meaning of the term this sterilization should be understood as an act of genocide and she explores the ways Canada has managed to avoid this charge This lucid engaging book explicitly challenges Canadians to take up their responsibilities as treaty partners to reconsider their history and to hold their government to account for its treatment of Indigenous people. Wow This book seriously challenges everything we think we are as Canadians I was completely unaware of the devastating events that were brought to light in this book To say it made me rife with mixed emotions would be an understatement Karen Stote is a writer of monumental talent Major respect to you for giving this issue a much needed voice Highly recommended it

free download ✓ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ë Karen Stote

During the 1900s eugenics gained favour as a means of controlling the birth rate among “undesirable” populations in Canada Though many people were targeted the coercive sterilization of one group has gone largely unnoticed An Act of Genocide unpacks long buried archival evidence to begin documenting the forced sterilization of Aboriginal women in Canada Grounding this evidence wi. A very important book about forced sterilization eugenic policies and practices throughout Canadian history with a detailed chapter on Canada s resistance to acknowledging the ongoing and historical genocide of Indigenous people Happy Canada Day This country is built on and continues to profit from the death and disposition of territory and resources of Indigenous people